ODP-ObstacleDepartureProcedure-什么是障碍物离场程序!

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通常,在离场时,国内航图和航司实际运行中都会采用机场的离场图,而这些图基本都是SID,也就是所说的标准离场程序,如下图所示,标准离场程序:

标准离场程序的设计原则如下StandardClimb Gradient for SID Design

TheMinimum Flight Path Climb gradient is 3.3 % (200 ft/nm).

• A 2.5%(152 ft/nm) gradient Obstacle Clearance Surface (OCS) plane is projected upfrom the DER. If no obstacle penetrates the 2.5% OCS, then the SID isconsidered standard.

• TheMinimum Required Obstacle Clearance (ROC) between the Flight Path  and the OCS is 0.24 x Climb Gradient. For a3.3% minimum flight path  gradient, thisis 0.8% (48 ft/nm).

• If anobstacle penetrates the OCS plane, then an Obstacle Departure Procedure (ODP)is required to be developed (FAA).

如上所示,什么是标准的离场程序?

1、最小飞行轨迹的爬升是3.3°

2、DER位置开始,一个梯度是2.5°的超障面向上投射,如果没有障碍物穿过这个超障面,那么这个SID就视为标准。

3、在飞行轨迹和超障面之间的最小障碍物超障是0.24*爬升梯度,对于一个最小飞行轨迹是3.3梯度的飞机,这个值是0.8%

4、如果有障碍物穿过了这个超障面,那么必须设立障碍物离场程序。

在国内的相关程序设计文件中(目视和仪表飞行程序),关于离场程序的设计,也能找到相关的内容:

障碍物离场程序

If anODP was developed for a specific runway, it will be listed on the Jepp AirportInformation Chart. ODPs are default procedures and are used in the absence ofradar vectors or SID assignments by ATC. ODPs were developed for obstructionclearance only and do not include ATC related climb requirements. They are theleast restrictive route of flight to the enroute airway structure or theyfacilitate a climb to an altitude.

如果为特定跑道开发了ODP,它将在Jepp机场信息图表中列出。ODP是默认的程序,在ATC没有雷达引导或SID分配的情况下使用。ODP仅用于超越障碍物,不包括与ATC相关的爬升要求。它们是通往航路结构的飞行限制最小的航线,或者它们有助于爬升至高空。

ICAO8168中规定离场程序的设计原则中有以下规定,但是没有发现一定要设计一个障碍物超障程序:

所以笔者又去看了FAA的相关内容:

Instrumentdeparture procedures are preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) procedureswhich provide obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the appropriateen route structure. There are two types of DPs, Obstacle Departure Procedures(ODP), printed either textually or graphically, and Standard InstrumentDepartures (SID), always printed graphically.

仪表离场程序是预先计划好的仪表飞行规则(IFR)程序,可提供从终端区域到适当的航路结构的障碍物超障裕度。DP有两种类型,即以文本或图形方式打印的障碍物离场程序ODP)和始终以图形方式打印的标准仪器离场SID)。

All DPs, either textual or graphic may bedesigned using either conventional or RNAV criteria. RNAV procedures will haveRNAV printed in the title; for example, SHEAD TWO DEPARTURE (RNAV). ODPsprovide obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminalarea to the appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recommended forobstruction clearance and may be flown without ATC clearance unless analternate departure procedure (SID or radar vector) has been specificallyassigned by ATC. Graphic ODPs will have (OBSTACLE) printed in the proceduretitle;

可以使用常规或RNAV标准来设计所有DP,无论是文本格式还是图形格式。RNAV程序的标题将印有RNAV例如,SHEAD TEAR DEPARTURERNAV)。ODP通过从终点站到适当的航路结构的最不费力的路线提供障碍物超障。推荐使用ODP来清除障碍物,并且可以在没有ATC许可的情况下进行飞行,除非ATC特别指定了替代离场程序(SID或雷达引导)。图形ODP将在程序标题上打印(OBSTACLE);

forexample, GEYSR THREE DEPARTURE (OBSTACLE), or, CROWN ONE DEPARTURE (RNAV)(OBSTACLE). Standard Instrument Departures are air traffic control (ATC)procedures printed for pilot/controller use in graphic form to provideobstruction clearance and a transition from the terminal area to theappropriate en route structure. SIDs are primarily designed for systemenhancement and to reduce pilot/controller workload. ATC clearance must bereceived prior to flying a SID. All DPs provide the pilot with a way to departthe airport and transition to the en route structure safely.

标准仪表离场是以图形形式印刷的供飞行员/管制员使用的空中交通管制(ATC)程序,以提供障碍物超障以及从终端区域到适当的航路结构的过渡。SID主要设计用于系统增强和减少飞行员/控制器的工作量。飞行SID之前必须先收到ATC许可。所有DP都为飞行员提供了一种从机场出发并安全过渡到航路结构的方法。

可以看到,ODP应该是FAA的内容。

找到一个范例,供大家观赏:西雅图机场

To Be Continued…….

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